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These alternatives are testable by selecting human and organic osseous points, as well as animal bones, for renewed AMS dating. A total of 10 samples from Vindija Cave were selected for AMS radiocarbon dating (Table 1).

These included three previously dated Neanderthal specimens (Vi-207, Vi-208, and Vi-33.19), as well as a fourth Neanderthal bone (Vi-*28) discovered using zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (Zoo MS) screening.

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The Community Archaeology Radiocarbon Dating (CARD) Fund was established and funded by Archaeological Research Services Ltd and the SUERC Radiocarbon dating laboratory in January 2016.

The fund consists of a set number of radiocarbon dates available on an annual basis that community archaeology groups or projects can apply for. The fund is not open to universities, students, professional archaeological organisations or large charities.

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The applicant must acknowledge the CARD Fund when publishing the date/s, and typically this will take the form of "The date/s reported in this publication were funded by the Community Archaeology Radiocarbon Dating Fund".The European record for the transition retains its interest because it is the best-documented sequence for the disappearance of a hominin group available (3). Ascertaining the spatial attributes of Neanderthal and modern human populations in Europe is an area of active research, and a reliable chronology remains essential. (Vi-208: Ox A-X-2089-06), which indicated the previous dates were indeed too young.The latest data, both radiometric and genetic, suggest Neanderthals and modern humans coexisted or overlapped for up to several thousand years in Europe until Neanderthal disappearance at around 40,000 cal B. Our understanding of the biocultural processes involved in the transition have been greatly influenced by improved accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating methods and their application to directly dating the remains of late Neanderthals and early modern humans, as well as artifacts recovered from the sites they occupied. (10) showed that, when redated using ultrafiltration methods, the bones that produced ages of ∼33,000 B. were in fact beyond the radiocarbon limit, suggesting the Neanderthal remains were unlikely to be as young as previously thought. For sample Vi-208, after ultrafiltration, the C/N atomic ratio was 3.4, which indicates collagen of acceptable quality.Given the evidence from the Peștera cu Oase specimen, which demonstrates a recent Neanderthal ancestry in a 40,000 cal B. modern human from the Danube corridor (5), the renewed dating of the Vindija remains is overdue. On the basis of the potential problems associated with the small size of the redated samples and the potential for remaining contaminants, Ox A-X-2089-06 was considered to be a minimum age (14).Two specimens, Vi-207 and Vi-208, were originally directly AMS dated in the late 1990s at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). If the dates are even approximately correct, however, it makes them the most recent known Neanderthals.This article presents revised radiocarbon dates of the human bones from this site obtained using a more robust purification method targeting the amino acid hydroxyproline.

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